Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses. It is often caused by bacterial (germ) infection. Sometimes, viruses and fungi (molds) cause it. People with weak immune systems are more likely to develop bacterial or fungal sinusitis. Some people with allergies can have “allergic fungal sinusitis.” Acute sinus disease lasts three to eight weeks. Sinus disease lasting longer than eight weeks is considered chronic.

The sinuses are air-filled cavities. They are located:

Within the bony structure of the cheeks

Behind the forehead and eyebrows

On either side of the bridge of the nose

Behind the nose directly in front of the brain

An infection of the sinus cavity close to the brain can be life threatening, if not treated. In rare cases, it can spread to the brain.

Normal sinuses are lined with a thin layer of mucus that traps dust, germs and other particles in the air. Tiny hair-like projections in the sinuses sweep the mucus (and whatever is trapped in it) towards openings that lead to the back of the throat. From there, it slides down to the stomach. This continual process is a normal body function.

Sinus disease stops the normal flow of mucus from the sinuses to the back of the throat. The tiny hair-like “sweepers” become blocked when infections or allergies cause tiny nasal tissues to swell. The swelling traps mucus in the sinuses.

Some people have bodily defects that contribute to sinus disease. The most common of these defects are:

Deformity of the bony partition between the two nasal passages

Nasal polyps (benign nasal growths that contain mucus)

A narrowing of the sinus openings

People with these defects often suffer from chronic sinus disease.

Common symptoms of sinusitis include:

Postnasal drip

Discolored nasal discharge (greenish in color)

Nasal stuffiness or congestion

Tenderness of the face (particularly under the eyes or at the bridge of the nose)

Frontal headaches

Pain in the teeth

Coughing

Fever

Fatigue

Bad breath